This paper presents the opportunities of the indirect participation of individuals in the Olympic Games; a unique athletic event based not only on specific ideals, but it also carries on a movement and foresees the participation of different
Fernández Peña, Emilio; Berta Cerezuela; Miquel Gómez Benosa; Chris Kennett; Miquel de Moragas Spà (2011): Mosaico olímpico: Investigación multidisciplinar y difusión de los estudios olímpicos. CEO-UAB: 20 años. Barcelona : Centre dEstudis Olímpics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; Ajuntament
Fernández Peña, Emilio; Berta Cerezuela; Miquel Gómez Benosa; Chris Kennett; Miquel de Moragas Spà (2011): Mosaic olímpic: Recerca multidisciplinar i difusió dels estudis olímpics. CEO-UAB: 20 anys. Barcelona : Centre dEstudis Olímpics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; Ajuntament de
Miquel de Moragas; Miquel Botella (eds.) (2002): Barcelona: l'herència dels Jocs (1992-2002). Barcelona: Centre dEstudis Olímpics (UAB), Ajuntament de Barcelona, Editorial Planeta.
Miquel de Moragas Spà; Nuria Puig; Ana Belen Moreno (eds.) (2000): Volunteers, global society and the Olympic Movement: International Symposium Lausanne. 24th, 25th and 26th November 1999. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee, 2000. ISBN: 92-9149-069-5.
This paper argues that a reflexive, late modern volunteer culture coexists with a collectivist, traditional one at major sporting events. Those who regularly volunteer at such events and are affiliated with organized sport tend to be older and male, and have higher incomes. Those who are volunteering for the first time and are unaffiliated with organized sport resemble reflexive volunteers to a greater extent: they tend to be younger and female, and their incomes are lower than those of regular sports volunteers. A factor analysis identified sports interest, social motives and qualification/work-related motives as three motivational dimensions for volunteering at sporting events. The first two intrinsic dimensions were more important to event regulars and those affiliated with organized sports. Building qualifications and work-related experience were more important motives for first-timers and unaffiliated volunteers, indicating that these volunteers view event volunteering as an appropriate way of investing in social and human capital. The data come from an Internet-based survey (n=800, response rate 77) conducted prior to the 2010 test event for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo, Norway.
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